Research papers on second language acquisition
The analysis consists of a product-oriented and a process-oriented part.
Another salient difference when comparing L1 and L2 outcomes is that whereas native competence is the norm in the L1 context, it is the exception in the case of L2s. This was because of the very robust general findings showing that, in key respects, learners develop in similar ways no matter what their age is, whether they are learning the L2 in a classroom or in a country where the language is spoken, no matter what their L1 is, and no matter what they were actually taught.
The robust research findings regarding the systematicity of the route followed by L2 learners do not have straightforward implications for language teaching, however.
First language acquisition articles
Producing them need not be seen as necessarily problematic in fact, some errors can be evidence of a more advanced linguistic system than the equivalent correct form: for example, learners will usually produce rote-learned formulaic questions such as 'where's X? Learners first need the help of experts in order to 'scaffold' them into the next developmental stages before they can appropriate the newly acquired knowledge. Whether this is due to the process of acquisition having changed fundamentally in adulthood e. Transfer Use of L1 properties in the L2. As we have seen, one line of research inquiry has addressed questions about the nature of the input and the role of interaction in the learning process. Moreover, if developmental sequences show how learners construct the L2 linguistic system, they do not tell us anything about how learners develop their ability to access in real time the system they have constructed. The reverse is also true, with some learners developing high levels of fluency quickly, but remaining very inaccurate in their productions. For example, the role of input, interaction and feedback, and how they can speed up development, is seen as much more crucial, as is the role of practice in the development of fluency and control of the L2 system. Although the commonly held view that children are better L2 learners is a gross oversimplification if not a complete myth, differences have been found between children and adults, primarily in terms of eventual outcome. Language learning is seen as the appropriation of a tool through the shift from inter-mental to intra-mental processes. The UG view of language learning is consistent with the communicative language teaching approach, in the sense that both believe that learning will take place if rich natural input is present. Similarly, the implications of SLA research for teaching are now receiving more attention, as is the specificity of the classroom context for understanding learning, but much more work remains to be done in these areas.
These models might appear contradictory at first sight, but in fact they can be reconciled in so far as they are concerned with different aspects of SLA, which is, after all, a highly complex process.
Even if one accepts the view that language development is highly constrained, possibly by UG and, after all, the robust developmental routes that learners follow, as illustrated earlier, seem to be a strong argument in favour of this viewit is not the whole picture.
Cognitive models The cognitive and information processing models generally, which originate from psychology and neurolinguisticsclaim, on the other hand, that language learning is no different from other types of learning, and is the result of the human brain building up networks of associations on the basis of input.
The UG view of language learning is consistent with the communicative language teaching approach, in the sense that both believe that learning will take place if rich natural input is present.
Berry, J. Edwards ed. Some factors have been isolated as playing some part in this.
Second language acquisition strategies
This approach de-emphasises the role of a metalinguistic knowledge of the L2 linguistic system. Edwards ed. The second statement usually refers to either the rate of the learning process the speed at which learners are learning the L2 , or the outcome of the learning process how proficient learners become , or both. However, hitherto no study has focused on the translation of metaphor from a developmental perspective. If motivation, as well as other learner variables, is now widely recognised as playing a determining role in SLA, more research needs to be carried out on its pedagogical implications, i. In a nutshell this linguistic theory claims that humans inherit a mental language faculty which highly constrains the shape that human languages can take and therefore severely limits the kind of hypotheses that children can entertain regarding the structure of the language they are exposed to. The reverse is also true, with some learners developing high levels of fluency quickly, but remaining very inaccurate in their productions. Translation competence models picture an interwoven system of We also need to understand many aspects of the SLA process other than the acquisition of syntax and morphology, such as lexical acquisition or the development of pragmatic and sociolinguistic repertoires. Even if one accepts the view that language development is highly constrained, possibly by UG and, after all, the robust developmental routes that learners follow, as illustrated earlier, seem to be a strong argument in favour of this view , it is not the whole picture. Cognitive models The cognitive and information processing models generally, which originate from psychology and neurolinguistics , claim, on the other hand, that language learning is no different from other types of learning, and is the result of the human brain building up networks of associations on the basis of input. The fact remains, though, that the route followed by young and older L2 learners is essentially the same, and is similar in many respects to that followed by children learning that language as a native language. This is because it has obvious pedagogical implications: if we understand what makes learners learn faster and progress further, then maybe we can be better teachers or learners. Moreover, transfer often occurs one way and not the other, with English learners of French, for example, producing la souris mange le the mouse eats it rather than la souris le mange the mouse it eats , but French learners of English never produce the mouse it eats in their interlanguage , which one would expect if transfer was taking place Hawkins a. Berry, J.
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